Category Archives: CHEST

Cor pulmonale

How copd leads to cor pulmonale
Hypoxic pulmonary VC
pulmonary vascular remodelling
Lung hyperinflation– compresses the capillaries ( alveolar wall stretches)


pulmonary embolism

if pulmonary embolism causes pulmonary infarction, hempotysis may accompany.

my professor just told me this afternoon that hemoptysis is a problem, not so much because we fear of a hemodynamic instability but rather it is due to the fact that blood in the respiratory tract has to find its way and only way out through the trachea( which is relatively narrow as its surface area is the narrowest compared to the lower airways) .and by that we fear that the patients lung may be soaked with blood which consequently leads to suffocation.

regarding the atrial fibrillation caused by pulmonary embolism, both can lead to each other , and knowing which initiates first needs further investigation. AF here is a new-onset , hence put PE as a DDX if this happens. in my opinion, since RECURRENT PE presents with little clinical signs and symptoms, if you discover an unknown cause of AF, consider PE in your diagnosis before diagnosing LONE AF.

professors tips: when examining for the upper mediastinum(trachea) ,place your finger in the suprasternal notch and set it as a landmark instead of blindly moving right and left.

i personally seldom imagine this when i think of the pulmonary circulation. lets stick this in our heads with glue gajah



The bronchial arteries supply blood to the bronchi and connective tissue of the lungs. They travel with and branch with the bronchi, ending about at the level of the respiratory bronchioles. They anastomose with the branches of the pulmonary arteries, and together, they supply the visceral pleura of the lung in the process.
Note that much of the blood supplied by the bronchial arteries is returned via the pulmonary veins rather than the bronchial veins.
Each bronchial artery also has a branch that supplies the esophagus.

remember the lung has dual blood supply!!!! from the pulmonary arteries and bronchial arteries.

bronchial arteries !!!

i just read the discussion part ONLY.haha.

interesting! bronchial arteries…. you are more than what meets a medical students eyes. subhanallah!


p/s: no need to guess. im in indeed in chest department now. yehu!


i am in chest department now.yoohoo





know your lobes please.
the doctor asked what was learnt 4 years ago!!!!!

the lower lobes for both rt and lt has 5 mini lobes: apical ,post,ant,lat, med.

mediastinum is a SPACE NOT A STRUCTURE!

The most common malignancies that cause SVCS is bronchogenic carcinoma.